As the nations of the world wrapped up the most recent round of discussions on the key elements that will serve as the foundation for the final agreement to be adopted in Paris next year, many observers remained focused on China. Simply put, the actions that China takes (or doesn’t take) in the next decade or so could very well determine whether humanity can successfully avoid a full-blown climate catastrophe. Even though China is still technically considered a developing country under the UNFCCC, the world, and China’s position in it, has changed dramatically in the more than two decades since that document was negotiated. China has been the world’s single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions since 2006, it consumes nearly as much coal as the rest of the world combined, and its energy demand is expected to double by 2030. According to an excellent recent Rolling Stone article on US-China climate discussions, China now emits 10 billion tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year, which is expected to increase to over 15 billion tons by 2030. The article quotes Kevin Anderson, deputy director of the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, expressing his opinion that if this happens, the world’s chances of avoiding catastrophic climate disturbance are “virtually zero.”
As such, some may become discouraged by the fact that China continues to insist that “developed” countries should bear the greatest responsibility for mitigating climate change based on their historical contributions to atmospheric greenhouse gases. For example, with regard to ADP workstream 2, the ENB’s summary of ADP2-6 noted that a Conference Room Paper submitted by China on behalf of the LMDC’s called for “unconditional commitments by Annex I parties to reduce emissions by 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.” With regard to workstream 1, the closing statement submitted by the G77+China expressed concern that the ADP Co-Chairs’ draft text on information on INDC’s in the context of the 2015 agreement lacks “central elements” such as the principles of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities. In short, China has been resistant to international pressure to commit to curbing its greenhouse gas emissions based on its belief that the current climate crisis is largely the industrialized West’s fault. Developing nations such as China should not have to bear the burden of solving a problem they didn’t create. While there is a lot of truth to this argument, it seems to fall short of the reality of the climate challenges the world faces today and into the future.
Nevertheless, recent domestic actions taken by China do offer hope that China’s leaders are taking the threats associated with climate change seriously and are doing something about it. For one thing, China’s leaders fully recognize that the environmental degradation caused by its breakneck economic growth over the last several decades, most of which was supported by the burning of coal, is not sustainable. This heavy reliance on coal has resulted in untold amounts of damage to the country’s air, surface and groundwater, and soils. Public health has taken a heavy hit as well – a report published last year found that outdoor air pollution contributed to 1.2 million premature deaths in China in 2010. Accordingly, earlier this year Premier Li Keqiang announced a “war on pollution.” Among other things, this war will consist of shutting down outdated small coal-fired power plants and industrial plants, reforms in energy pricing to boost renewables, and increases in government spending on measures to address water and soil degradation. China is outperforming the United States on renewable energy, which now makes up about 20% of China’s energy mix. China produces more wind and solar power than any other country on the planet, and in 2013 over 50% of new generation was renewable. There are also indications that China’s coal use may peak as early as this year.
China is also a step ahead of the United States with regards to regulating carbon emissions. It has introduced pilot cap-and-trade programs in five cities and two provinces that are designed to be replicated and implemented at the national level sometime between 2016 and 2020. According to a recent study by Resources for the Future, these pilot programs increase the coverage of global emissions by carbon markets from less than 8% to more than 11%. While the study notes that the pilot cap-and-trade programs are not perfect and could use some improvements, they nevertheless indicate that addressing climate change is in fact high on China’s list of priorities.
China is therefore, somewhat paradoxically, the source of both hope and despair when it comes to confronting the challenges presented by climate change. It will certainly be very interesting to see how this paradox plays out in the upcoming climate negotiations on Lima and in Paris.